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潭兴分度盘浅谈数控设备的技术选型

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潭兴分度盘浅谈数控设备的技术选型

发布日期:2021-04-16 作者:潭兴 点击:

  

对一(yi)个制造企业来说,提高生(sheng)产(chan)能力往(wang)往(wang)从生(sheng)产(chan)管理、制造工(gong)艺(yi)、生(sheng)产(chan)设备(bei)等方面入手进行技术改造,而这几部分内(nei)容又是互为影响(xiang)和(he)制约的(de)。在技改中(zhong)对生(sheng)产(chan)设备(bei)、数控(kong)机床的(de)更新、维修(xiu)、采(cai)购等的(de)选择上(shang)必须(xu)考虑到要在什么样环境(jing)下(xia)使用、如何管理、怎样能达(da)到好(hao)的(de)经济(ji)效果(guo)等问题。


选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)制(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)设(she)备(bei)是要(yao)为制(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)某一些(xie)产(chan)品服务(wu)的(de),选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)的(de)设(she)备(bei)可能用(yong)于(yu)产(chan)品零件的(de)一部分工(gong)(gong)序加工(gong)(gong)、也(ye)可能用(yong)于(yu)全部工(gong)(gong)序加工(gong)(gong)。制(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)水(shui)平的(de)高低首先取(qu)决于(yu)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)过程的(de)设(she)计,它将决定(ding)用(yong)什(shen)么(me)方法和手段来加工(gong)(gong),从(cong)而也(ye)决定(ding)了对使用(yong)设(she)备(bei)的(de)基(ji)本要(yao)求,这也(ye)是对生(sheng)产(chan)进行(xing)技(ji)术组织和管理的(de)依据。设(she)备(bei)选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)的(de)基(ji)本要(yao)求确定(ding)后还要(yao)根据市场(chang)上能提供什(shen)么(me)样技(ji)术水(shui)平的(de)装(zhuang)备(bei)来选(xuan)择(ze)(ze),针对大部分中(zhong)小批量生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)企业,选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)数控(kong)机床来替(ti)代旧机床或增强生(sheng)产(chan)能力已是发展趋势(shi)。


比(bi)较普通和(he)数(shu)控(kong)两类(lei)机床的(de)性能,数(shu)控(kong)机床具(ju)有加(jia)工(gong)(gong)复杂(za)形面(mian)零件能力强、适(shi)应多(duo)种加(jia)工(gong)(gong)对象(xiang)(柔性强);加(jia)工(gong)(gong)质量、精度和(he)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)效率高;适(shi)应CAD/CAM联网、适(shi)合制造加(jia)工(gong)(gong)信息集成管理(li);设备的(de)利用率高、正常运(yun)行费用低等特点。


选择(ze)数控机床是(shi)一个综合(he)性技(ji)(ji)术问题,现在(zai)无(wu)论国(guo)内还是(shi)国(guo)外,都能(neng)生产提供多(duo)种多(duo)样(yang)的(de)设(she)备(bei)。数控机床经(jing)几十年发(fa)展已演变出一个庞大家族群,能(neng)完成各种各样(yang)的(de)加(jia)工制造要求(qiu)。如(ru)何从品种繁多(duo)、价(jia)格昂贵的(de)设(she)备(bei)中选择(ze)适用的(de)设(she)备(bei),如(ru)何使这些(xie)设(she)备(bei)在(zai)制造中充(chong)分发(fa)挥作用而且(qie)又能(neng)满足企业以后(hou)的(de)发(fa)展,如(ru)何正确、合(he)理地选购(gou)与主机配套的(de)附(fu)件、工具、软件技(ji)(ji)术、售后(hou)技(ji)(ji)术服务(wu)等,使采(cai)购(gou)的(de)设(she)备(bei)能(neng)达(da)到较(jiao)好的(de)投入比……这些(xie)问题都是(shi)广大采(cai)购(gou)者必须考虑,并逐(zhu)一要处理好的(de)问题。

 

 轴类零件:铣端面打中心孔→数控车床(粗(cu)加工(gong))→数控磨床(精加工(gong));


 法兰(lan)和盘类件(jian):数控车床(粗加工)→车削中心(精加工);


 型(xing)腔模具(ju)零件:普通机(ji)床加工外形及基面→数(shu)控(kong)铣床加工型(xing)面→高(gao)速数(shu)控(kong)铣精加工→抛光(guang)或电腐蚀型(xing)面;


 板类零件:双轴铣(xian)床或龙门铣(xian)床加(jia)工(gong)大(da)平(ping)面→立式加(jia)工(gong)中心上(shang)加(jia)工(gong)各类孔(kong);


 箱(xiang)体零件(jian):立式(shi)加工中心(xin)上加工底面(mian)→卧式(shi)加工中心(xin)上加工四(si)周面(mian)各工艺面(mian)。


在安排工艺流(liu)程(cheng)中考虑下列(lie)因(yin)素:


(1)选择短的(de)加工工艺流程。


(2)数(shu)控机床有相当(dang)大(da)适(shi)应性,但也不是的(de),从经(jing)(jing)济观点考虑,典型工件族中每一种零件都有一个经(jing)(jing)济批量,应在经(jing)(jing)济批量基(ji)础上使用比较先进的(de)工艺(yi)手段。


(3)尽量发(fa)挥机(ji)床(chuang)的(de)各种工(gong)艺(yi)特点,追求大限度(du)地发(fa)挥数控(kong)机(ji)床(chuang)的(de)综合(he)加工(gong)能力特长(多工(gong)序集(ji)中(zhong)的(de)工(gong)艺(yi)特点),应在生产流程中(zhong)配置少的(de)机(ji)床(chuang)数量、少的(de)工(gong)艺(yi)装备和夹具


(4)要(yao)考虑(lv)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)线(xian)或生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)车间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)各(ge)种(zhong)设备能力的(de)(de)平衡。作为单台(tai)数控机(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)选择或一(yi)条生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)线(xian)的(de)(de)配置,单一(yi)的(de)(de)设备不(bu)可能完全包下一(yi)个工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)全部加工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu),必(bi)然有和其他设备的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)转(zhuan)接(jie),各(ge)设备之间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)能力要(yao)平衡,满足生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)节拍的(de)(de)综合(he)要(yao)求,所以(yi)安排每台(tai)设备上的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)数量、加工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)顺序(xu)等(deng)既要(yao)发挥各(ge)台(tai)数控机(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)特(te)长、满足精度要(yao)求,还要(yao)进一(yi)步应考虑(lv)各(ge)台(tai)机(ji)床(chuang)上工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)转(zhuan)序(xu)时(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺基准的(de)(de)合(he)理(li)使用。


(5)在(zai)安(an)排数(shu)控(kong)(kong)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)中(zhong)经常碰到的(de)(de)问(wen)题是工(gong)(gong)(gong)序集(ji)中(zhong)与工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)渐(jian)精(jing)原(yuan)则的(de)(de)矛盾(dun)。在(zai)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)机床(chuang)的(de)(de)使用上(shang),人们普遍(bian)采用将(jiang)多工(gong)(gong)(gong)序集(ji)中(zhong)在(zai)一(yi)(yi)台机床(chuang)上(shang)完(wan)成的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)集(ji)中(zhong)原(yuan)则,以(yi)此(ci)来追求(qiu)(qiu)提高(gao)生产率(lv),缩(suo)短零件(jian)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)周期,甚至希望工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)在(zai)一(yi)(yi)次(ci)装(zhuang)卡(ka)中(zhong)全部加工(gong)(gong)(gong)完(wan)毕(bi)。但实(shi)际(ji)上(shang)对一(yi)(yi)些复杂的(de)(de)、精(jing)度要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)较高(gao)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),由于在(zai)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)过程中(zhong)的(de)(de)热变形(xing)、内(nei)应力引(yin)起的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)变形(xing)、工(gong)(gong)(gong)夹具夹紧变形(xing)、热处(chu)理要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)时效(xiao)等工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)因素和程编者操(cao)作因素等,很(hen)难一(yi)(yi)次(ci)装(zhuang)卡(ka)完(wan)成全部加工(gong)(gong)(gong)。基(ji)本工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)准则中(zhong)对加工(gong)(gong)(gong)零件(jian)的(de)(de)逐步精(jing)化(hua)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)制约(yue)着工(gong)(gong)(gong)序集(ji)中(zhong)的(de)(de)数(shu)量,妥(tuo)善处(chu)理这两者矛盾(dun)是数(shu)控(kong)(kong)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)的(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)内(nei)容。


(6)在对典型工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件族工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)流程(cheng)的(de)(de)安(an)排中,应(ying)妥善安(an)排各台(tai)机床和(he)生产(chan)线的(de)(de)手工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)调整和(he)检测等工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作,即(ji)人(ren)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)干预(yu)的(de)(de)影响。企(qi)业要根据自(zi)(zi)身的(de)(de)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)装备能(neng)(neng)力、技(ji)术(shu)(shu)水(shui)平(ping)和(he)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)改造投入的(de)(de)力度,确(que)定(ding)在工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)流程(cheng)中人(ren)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)干预(yu)的(de)(de)程(cheng)度,这(zhei)决定(ding)了对选择数控(kong)机床的(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)化水(shui)平(ping)和(he)功能(neng)(neng)要求。应(ying)客观考虑(lv)适(shi)当(dang)采(cai)用(yong)手工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)调整来(lai)补充企(qi)业要达到(dao)完全(quan)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)化的(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)力,对企(qi)业的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)能(neng)(neng)力和(he)设(she)备水(shui)平(ping)确(que)切定(ding)位。


三、数控机(ji)床主要(yao)特征规格的(de)选择


机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)特征(zheng)规格(ge)应(ying)包括机(ji)(ji)型、机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)规格(ge)参数和机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)主电机(ji)(ji)功率等。在确(que)定工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)内(nei)容的前提下,机(ji)(ji)型选择就较(jiao)明确(que)了。例如(ru),回(hui)转体(ti)零件加(jia)工(gong)(gong)主要可供选择设备(bei)有车床(chuang)、车削中(zhong)心(xin)、数控磨床(chuang)等;箱体(ti)的加(jia)工(gong)(gong)则应(ying)以立式或卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)为主。


数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)机床已发展成品种(zhong)繁多、可(ke)(ke)(ke)供广泛选(xuan)择的(de)(de)(de)(de)商品,在(zai)机型选(xuan)择中应(ying)在(zai)满(man)足(zu)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)要(yao)求的(de)(de)(de)(de)前提下越简单越好(hao)。例如,车削(xue)中心和(he)(he)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)车床都可(ke)(ke)(ke)以(yi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)轴类零件,但一台(tai)满(man)足(zu)同样(yang)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)规格的(de)(de)(de)(de)车削(xue)中心价格要(yao)比数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)车床贵几倍(bei),如果没有进一步工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)要(yao)求,选(xuan)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)车床应(ying)是合理的(de)(de)(de)(de)。在(zai)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)型腔模具零件中,同规格的(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)铣(xian)床和(he)(he)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心都能满(man)足(zu)基(ji)本加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)要(yao)求,但两种(zhong)机床价格相差20%~50%,所以(yi)在(zai)模具加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中要(yao)采用(yong)(yong)(yong)常(chang)更(geng)换刀具的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)可(ke)(ke)(ke)安排(pai)选(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心,而(er)固定一把(ba)刀具长时间(jian)铣(xian)削(xue)的(de)(de)(de)(de)可(ke)(ke)(ke)选(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)铣(xian)床


数控机(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)规格是几个(ge)数控轴的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)范围和主(zhu)轴电(dian)机(ji)功(gong)率(lv)。机(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)三个(ge)基本(ben)直(zhi)线坐标(biao)(X、Y、Z)行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)反(fan)映该(gai)机(ji)床允(yun)许的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)空(kong)(kong)间,在(zai)车床中(zhong)两个(ge)坐标(biao)(X、Z)反(fan)映允(yun)许回(hui)转(zhuan)体的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)小。一般(ban)情况下(xia)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)轮廓尺寸(cun)应(ying)在(zai)机(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)空(kong)(kong)间范围之(zhi)内(nei),例(li)如,典型(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)是450 mm ×450 mm ×450 mm的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)箱体,那么应(ying)选取工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)面尺寸(cun)为(wei)(wei)500mm×500 mm的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)。选用工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)面比典型(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)稍大(da)一些是出于(yu)(yu)安装夹具考(kao)虑(lv)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。机(ji)床工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)面尺寸(cun)和三个(ge)直(zhi)线坐标(biao)行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)都有一定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)比例(li)关系(xi),如上述工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)(500 mm ×500 mm)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)床,x轴行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)一般(ban)为(wei)(wei)(700~800)mm、y轴为(wei)(wei)(500~700)mm、z轴为(wei)(wei)(500~600)mm左右。因此,工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)小基本(ben)上确定了加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)空(kong)(kong)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)小。个(ge)别情况下(xia)也允(yun)许工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)尺寸(cun)大(da)于(yu)(yu)坐标(biao)行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng),这时必须要(yao)求零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)区域处(chu)在(zai)行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)范围之(zhi)内(nei),而且要(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)机(ji)床工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)允(yun)许承载能(neng)力,以及工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)是否(fou)与机(ji)床交(jiao)换刀刀具的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)空(kong)(kong)间干(gan)涉、与机(ji)床防护罩(zhao)等附(fu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)发生干(gan)涉等系(xi)列问题。


数(shu)控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)主(zhu)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)在同(tong)类规格(ge)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)上(shang)也可(ke)以有各种(zhong)不同(tong)的(de)(de)配(pei)置,一般(ban)情况下反映了该机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)切(qie)削(xue)刚(gang)性(xing)和主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)高速(su)性(xing)能(neng)。例如,轻型机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)比标准型机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)就可(ke)能(neng)小(xiao)1~2级。目(mu)前一般(ban)加(jia)工(gong)中心主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)转速(su)在(4000~8000)r/min,高速(su)型机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)立式机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)可(ke)达(20000~70000)r/min,卧式机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(10000~20000)r/min,其主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)也成倍(bei)加(jia)大(da)(da)。主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)反映了机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)切(qie)削(xue)效率(lv)(lv),从另(ling)一个侧(ce)面也反映了切(qie)削(xue)刚(gang)性(xing)和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)整体刚(gang)度(du)。在现(xian)代中小(xiao)型数(shu)控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)中,主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)箱(xiang)的(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械变速(su)已较(jiao)少采(cai)用(yong),往(wang)往(wang)都采(cai)用(yong)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)较(jiao)大(da)(da)的(de)(de)交流(liu)可(ke)调速(su)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)直(zhi)联主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou),甚至(zhi)采(cai)用(yong)电(dian)主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)结(jie)构。这样(yang)的(de)(de)结(jie)构在低(di)速(su)中扭矩(ju)受到限制,即调速(su)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在低(di)转速(su)时输出(chu)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)下降,为了确保(bao)低(di)速(su)输出(chu)扭矩(ju),就得采(cai)用(yong)大(da)(da)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji),所以同(tong)规格(ge)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)数(shu)控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)比普通机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)大(da)(da)好几倍(bei)。当使用(yong)单(dan)位的(de)(de)一些典型工(gong)件上(shang)有大(da)(da)量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)低(di)速(su)加(jia)工(gong)时,也必须(xu)对选择机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)低(di)速(su)输出(chu)扭矩(ju)进行校(xiao)核。轻型机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)在价格(ge)上(shang)肯定便宜(yi),要求用(yong)户根据自己的(de)(de)典型工(gong)件毛坯余(yu)量(liang)(liang)大(da)(da)小(xiao)、切(qie)削(xue)能(neng)力(单(dan)位时间(jian)金属切(qie)除量(liang)(liang))、要求达到的(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)精度(du)、实际能(neng)配(pei)置什么样(yang)刀(dao)具等因素综合(he)选择机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)。

 

 

四、机床精度的选择(ze)


典(dian)型(xing)零件(jian)的(de)关键(jian)部位加(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)要求决定了选择数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)机床的(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)等(deng)级。数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)机床根(gen)据(ju)用途又(you)分为简易(yi)(yi)型(xing)、全功(gong)(gong)能型(xing)、超精(jing)(jing)密型(xing)等(deng),其(qi)能达到的(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)也(ye)是(shi)各不一样的(de)。简易(yi)(yi)型(xing)目前还用于一部分车床和铣床,其(qi)小运动分辩(bian)率为0.01mm,运动精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)和加(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)都(dou)在(0.03~0.05)mm以上。超精(jing)(jing)密型(xing)用于特殊加(jia)工(gong),其(qi)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)可达0.001mm以下。这里(li)主要讨论应用全功(gong)(gong)能数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)机床(以加(jia)工(gong)中心为主)


按精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)可分为普(pu)通(tong)型和精(jing)(jing)(jing)密型,一般数控(kong)机床精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)检验项(xiang)目都有(you)20~30项(xiang),但其有(you)特征项(xiang)目是:单轴定(ding)位精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)、单轴重复定(ding)位精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)和两轴以上(shang)联动加(jia)工出试件的圆度(du),如表1所示。

 

其他精(jing)度(du)(du)项目与表1内容都(dou)有(you)(you)一定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)对应关(guan)系。定(ding)位(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)和重(zhong)复(fu)定(ding)位(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)综合(he)反映了该轴各运动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)综合(he)精(jing)度(du)(du)。尤其是重(zhong)复(fu)定(ding)位(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du),它(ta)反映了该轴在行(xing)(xing)程内任意定(ding)位(wei)点(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)稳定(ding)性(xing)(xing),这是衡(heng)量(liang)该轴能(neng)(neng)否稳定(ding)可*工(gong)作(zuo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)基(ji)本(ben)指标。目前(qian)数控系统中软件(jian)(jian)都(dou)有(you)(you)丰富的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)误差(cha)补偿(chang)功(gong)能(neng)(neng),能(neng)(neng)对进(jin)给传动(dong)(dong)(dong)链(lian)上各环(huan)节系统误差(cha)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)稳定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)补偿(chang)。例(li)如,传动(dong)(dong)(dong)链(lian)各环(huan)节的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)间(jian)隙、弹性(xing)(xing)变形(xing)和接触刚度(du)(du)等(deng)变化因素,它(ta)们往(wang)(wang)往(wang)(wang)随着工(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)负载大(da)小、移(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)距离长(zhang)短、移(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)定(ding)位(wei)速度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)快慢等(deng)反映出不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)瞬(shun)时运动(dong)(dong)(dong)量(liang)。在一些开环(huan)和半闭环(huan)进(jin)给伺服系统中,测量(liang)元件(jian)(jian)以(yi)后的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机械驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)元件(jian)(jian),受各种偶然(ran)因素影响,也(ye)有(you)(you)相当(dang)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)随机误差(cha)影响,如滚珠丝杠热伸(shen)长(zhang)引起(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)实(shi)际定(ding)位(wei)位(wei)置漂(piao)移(yi)等(deng)。总之,如果能(neng)(neng)选择,那么就(jiu)选重(zhong)复(fu)定(ding)位(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)好的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)设备!


铣(xian)(xian)(xian)削(xue)(xue)圆(yuan)(yuan)柱(zhu)面精度(du)或(huo)铣(xian)(xian)(xian)削(xue)(xue)空间(jian)螺(luo)旋槽(cao)(螺(luo)纹)是综合评价(jia)该机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)有(you)(you)关(guan)数控(kong)轴(zhou)(zhou)(两轴(zhou)(zhou)或(huo)三轴(zhou)(zhou))伺服跟随运(yun)(yun)(yun)动特性和数控(kong)系(xi)统插(cha)(cha)补(bu)功能的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)指标,评价(jia)方法是测量加工(gong)出(chu)(chu)圆(yuan)(yuan)柱(zhu)面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)圆(yuan)(yuan)度(du)。分度(du)盘在(zai)数控(kong)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)试(shi)切(qie)件中还有(you)(you)铣(xian)(xian)(xian)斜方形(xing)(xing)四边(bian)加工(gong)法,也可判断两个(ge)可控(kong)轴(zhou)(zhou)在(zai)直线插(cha)(cha)补(bu)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动时(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)精度(du)。在(zai)做这项试(shi)切(qie)时(shi),把用于(yu)精加工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)立铣(xian)(xian)(xian)刀装到机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)主轴(zhou)(zhou)上(shang)(shang)(shang),铣(xian)(xian)(xian)削(xue)(xue)放置在(zai)工(gong)作(zuo)台上(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)圆(yuan)(yuan)形(xing)(xing)试(shi)件,对(dui)中小型(xing)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)圆(yuan)(yuan)形(xing)(xing)试(shi)件一(yi)般取(qu)在(zai)Ф200~Ф300,然(ran)后把切(qie)完(wan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)试(shi)件放到圆(yuan)(yuan)度(du)仪上(shang)(shang)(shang),测出(chu)(chu)其(qi)加工(gong)表面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)圆(yuan)(yuan)度(du)。铣(xian)(xian)(xian)出(chu)(chu)圆(yuan)(yuan)柱(zhu)面上(shang)(shang)(shang)有(you)(you)明显铣(xian)(xian)(xian)刀振纹反(fan)映(ying)该机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)插(cha)(cha)补(bu)速度(du)不稳定;铣(xian)(xian)(xian)出(chu)(chu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)圆(yuan)(yuan)度(du)有(you)(you)明显椭圆(yuan)(yuan)误差,反(fan)映(ying)插(cha)(cha)补(bu)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个(ge)可控(kong)轴(zhou)(zhou)系(xi)统增益不匹配;在(zai)圆(yuan)(yuan)形(xing)(xing)表面上(shang)(shang)(shang)每一(yi)可控(kong)轴(zhou)(zhou)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动换(huan)方向(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)点位上(shang)(shang)(shang)有(you)(you)停(ting)刀点痕迹(在(zai)连续切(qie)削(xue)(xue)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动中,在(zai)某(mou)一(yi)位置停(ting)止(zhi)进给运(yun)(yun)(yun)动刀具就会在(zai)加工(gong)表面上(shang)(shang)(shang)形(xing)(xing)成一(yi)小段多切(qie)去金属的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)痕迹)时(shi),反(fan)映(ying)该轴(zhou)(zhou)正反(fan)向(xiang)间(jian)隙没(mei)有(you)(you)调整好。


单轴(zhou)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位精度是指在(zai)该轴(zhou)行(xing)程(cheng)内任意一个(ge)点定(ding)(ding)(ding)位时的误(wu)差(cha)范(fan)围,它直接反映了机床的加工精度能力,所以是数控机床关键技术(shu)指标(biao)(biao)。目前(qian)全世界各(ge)国(guo)对这指标(biao)(biao)的规定(ding)(ding)(ding)、定(ding)(ding)(ding)义、测(ce)量方法和数据(ju)处理(li)等有(you)所不同,在(zai)各(ge)类数控机床样本资料(liao)介绍中,常用(yong)的标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)有(you)美国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)(NAS)和美国(guo)机床制造商(shang)协会推荐标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)、德国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)(VDI)、日本标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)(JIS)、国(guo)际标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)化组织(ISO)和我国(guo)国(guo)家标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)(GB)。在(zai)这些(xie)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)中规定(ding)(ding)(ding)低的是日本标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun),因(yin)为它的测(ce)量方法是使用(yong)单组稳定(ding)(ding)(ding)数据(ju)为基础,然后又(you)取出用(yong)±值把误(wu)差(cha)值压缩一半,所以用(yong)它的测(ce)量方法测(ce)出的定(ding)(ding)(ding)位精度往往比用(yong)其他标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)测(ce)出的相(xiang)差(cha)一倍以上。


其(qi)他几种标(biao)准(zhun)尽(jin)管(guan)处理(li)数(shu)(shu)据(ju)上有所区别(bie),但都(dou)反映(ying)(ying)了(le)要(yao)按(an)误(wu)差(cha)(cha)统(tong)计规律来(lai)分析测(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)精度(du),即对数(shu)(shu)控(kong)机床(chuang)某(mou)(mou)一可(ke)控(kong)轴行程中某(mou)(mou)一个(ge)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)点(dian)误(wu)差(cha)(cha),应该反映(ying)(ying)出(chu)该点(dian)在(zai)以后(hou)机床(chuang)长期使用(yong)中成千(qian)上万次在(zai)此定(ding)(ding)位(wei)的误(wu)差(cha)(cha),而J9九游会AG 在(zai)测(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)时只能(neng)测(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)有限次数(shu)(shu)(一般5~7次)。为(wei)了(le)真实(shi)反映(ying)(ying)这个(ge)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)点(dian)周围(wei)一组随(sui)机分散的点(dian)群定(ding)(ding)位(wei)误(wu)差(cha)(cha)分布范围(wei),J9九游会AG 采用(yong)了(le)误(wu)差(cha)(cha)统(tong)计规律数(shu)(shu)据(ju)处理(li)方法。例如(ru),按(an)老的ISO标(biao)准(zhun)推荐±3σ散差(cha)(cha)处理(li)办法,J9九游会AG 来(lai)测(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)一台(tai)加(jia)工中心机床(chuang)上某(mou)(mou)一个(ge)坐标(biao)精度(du),如(ru)图1所示。

 潭兴分度盘

定位精度曲线


若(ruo)J9九游会AG 对(dui)其中的某一定位(wei)点在(zai)正、反(fan)方向(xiang)趋近该(gai)定位(wei)点,定位(wei)七次(ci)(N=7),其每一次(ci)实测(ce)数据如(ru)下:+4μm、+2μm、+1μm、0、-1μm、-2μm、-4μm。按ISO标准规(gui)定,该(gai)定位(wei)点散差的平均值为(wei)△Xn=0,其散差3σ约(yue)为(wei)7.9μm。该(gai)点定位(wei)误差分布如(ru)图2所(suo)示。


从机床(chuang)(chuang)定(ding)位(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)可估算出该(gai)(gai)(gai)机床(chuang)(chuang)加工(gong)时可能达到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du),如在单(dan)轴(zhou)上(shang)移动(dong)加工(gong)两个孔的(de)(de)(de)孔距精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)约(yue)为单(dan)轴(zhou)在该(gai)(gai)(gai)段定(ding)位(wei)误(wu)差(cha)的(de)(de)(de)1~2倍(具体误(wu)差(cha)值与工(gong)艺(yi)因素(su)密切相关)。机床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)与该(gai)(gai)(gai)机床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)几何精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)相匹(pi)配(pei),精(jing)(jing)密级(ji)定(ding)位(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)机床(chuang)(chuang)要求该(gai)(gai)(gai)机床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)几何精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)也不(bu)能低于同类的(de)(de)(de)坐标镗床(chuang)(chuang)


现在有(you)一些(xie)用户对批量生产的典(dian)型零件加工,提(ti)出设备工艺能(neng)力系数的考(kao)核,要(yao)求(qiu)CPK值>1.1~1.33,这实质上是(shi)要(yao)求(qiu)机床精度(du)相对零件精度(du)允差要(yao)有(you)足够精度(du)储备,这样才能(neng)满足批量生产加工精度(du)稳定性要(yao)求(qiu)。


对定(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)要求较高(gao)的机床(chuang),必须(xu)关注(zhu)它的进给伺(si)服系统是采用(yong)(yong)半闭(bi)环方(fang)(fang)式(shi)(shi),还是全(quan)闭(bi)环方(fang)(fang)式(shi)(shi),必须(xu)关注(zhu)使用(yong)(yong)检(jian)(jian)测元(yuan)件(jian)的精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)及稳(wen)定(ding)性(xing)(xing)。机床(chuang)采用(yong)(yong)半闭(bi)环伺(si)服驱动方(fang)(fang)式(shi)(shi)时的精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)稳(wen)定(ding)性(xing)(xing)要受(shou)到一(yi)些(xie)外界因(yin)素影响,例如(ru),传(chuan)动链中(zhong)因(yin)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)温(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)变化(hua)引起滚(gun)珠丝(si)(si)(si)杠(gang)(gang)长度(du)(du)(du)(du)变化(hua),这必然使工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)(tai)实际定(ding)位(wei)(wei)位(wei)(wei)置(zhi)产(chan)生(sheng)漂移影响,进而(er)影响加工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的加工(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)。图(tu)3是目(mu)前(qian)常用(yong)(yong)的进给传(chuan)动链的一(yi)般结构。在(zai)半闭(bi)环控(kong)制方(fang)(fang)式(shi)(shi)下,位(wei)(wei)置(zhi)检(jian)(jian)测元(yuan)件(jian)放在(zai)伺(si)服电机另一(yi)端。滚(gun)珠丝(si)(si)(si)杠(gang)(gang)轴(zhou)向(xiang)位(wei)(wei)置(zhi)主要*一(yi)端固定(ding),另一(yi)端可(ke)以自由伸(shen)长,当丝(si)(si)(si)杠(gang)(gang)伸(shen)长时工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)(tai)就一(yi)个附(fu)加移动量。在(zai)一(yi)些(xie)新型中(zhong)小数(shu)控(kong)机床(chuang)上,采用(yong)(yong)减小导轨(gui)负荷(用(yong)(yong)直(zhi)线(xian)滚(gun)动导轨(gui))、提高(gao)丝(si)(si)(si)杠(gang)(gang)制造精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)、丝(si)(si)(si)杠(gang)(gang)两(liang)端加预拉伸(shen)和丝(si)(si)(si)杠(gang)(gang)中(zhong)心通恒温(wen)(wen)油冷(leng)却等措施,在(zai)半闭(bi)环系统中(zhong)也(ye)得到了(le)较稳(wen)定(ding)的定(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)。

 

五、数控(kong)系统的选择


随着市场(chang)需求多(duo)样化,机床制造商往往提供同一种机床可(ke)配(pei)置多(duo)种数(shu)控的(de)选择或数(shu)控系统中多(duo)种选择功能的(de)选择。


机床制(zhi)造商(shang)提供的(de)机床配置的(de)数控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统分为主流(liu)系(xi)(xi)统及(ji)可适(shi)应的(de)系(xi)(xi)统,主流(liu)系(xi)(xi)统相对(dui)(dui)来说(shuo)技(ji)术成熟性好(hao)一些,但对(dui)(dui)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)用(yong)户(hu)应另有(you)(you)要求(qiu),例(li)如对(dui)(dui)名牌系(xi)(xi)统的(de)质量追求(qiu)、希(xi)望在(zai)国内有(you)(you)较(jiao)好(hao)的(de)售后技(ji)术条件(jian)、在(zai)用(yong)户(hu)单位(wei)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)的(de)数控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统相对(dui)(dui)集中在(zai)几家(jia)等要求(qiu),以便(bian)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)掌握和维(wei)修配件(jian)准(zhun)备(bei),所以用(yong)户(hu)单位(wei)都愿意配置自己信得(de)过或比较(jiao)熟悉的(de)数控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统。


在可供选择的(de)(de)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)中(zhong)性(xing)(xing)能(neng)高低差别很(hen)大(da)(da),直接影响到设备价格构成,因此不(bu)能(neng)片面(mian)追求高水平、新系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong),而应以满(man)足主机(ji)性(xing)(xing)能(neng)为主,对系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)性(xing)(xing)能(neng)和价格等(deng)作一(yi)个综合分(fen)析,选用合适(shi)的(de)(de)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)。目前(qian)世界上比较著名的(de)(de)数控系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)有日本的(de)(de)FANUC、德(de)国(guo)的(de)(de)SINUMERIK、法国(guo)的(de)(de)NUM、意大(da)(da)利(li)的(de)(de)FIDIA、西(xi)班牙的(de)(de)FAGO和美国(guo)的(de)(de)A-B等(deng)。各大(da)(da)机(ji)床(chuang)制造厂商(shang)(shang)也(ye)有自己的(de)(de)一(yi)些系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong),如(ru)MAZAK、OKUMA等(deng)。国(guo)内也(ye)有航天集团(tuan)(tuan)、机(ji)电集团(tuan)(tuan)、华中(zhong)理工大(da)(da)学、辽宁蓝天、南京(jing)大(da)(da)方集团(tuan)(tuan)、北方凯奇等(deng)数控系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)供应商(shang)(shang),每家公(gong)司也(ye)都(dou)有一(yi)系(xi)(xi)列(lie)的(de)(de)各种规格的(de)(de)产品(pin)。分(fen)度盘


用户选择系(xi)统的基本原则是:性能价(jia)格比要高(gao)、购(gou)后的使用维护要方便(bian)、系(xi)统的市场寿(shou)命要长(不能选淘汰(tai)系(xi)统,否则使用几年后将找(zhao)不到维修备件)等。


数(shu)控系(xi)统中除基本(ben)功(gong)能以(yi)外还有很多可供选(xuan)(xuan)择的功(gong)能。对配(pei)在机(ji)床上的系(xi)统,由于机(ji)床使用基本(ben)要求所需的数(shu)控系(xi)统选(xuan)(xuan)择功(gong)能已由制造商(shang)选(xuan)(xuan)配(pei),用户可以(yi)根据自己的生产(chan)管(guan)理、测量要求、刀具管(guan)理、程序编(bian)制要求等(deng),额外再选(xuan)(xuan)择一些功(gong)能列入订货单中,如DNC接口联网(wang)要求等(deng)。

潭兴分度盘

六、自动换刀装备(ATC)、自动交换工作台(APC)和刀柄的选择配置


1.ATC的选(xuan)择


在具备综合(he)加工能(neng)力的(de)(de)一(yi)些数(shu)控机床上(shang),如加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)、车削(xue)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)和带交换(huan)冲头的(de)(de)数(shu)控冲床等,自(zi)动(dong)交换(huan)装置(zhi)是这些设备的(de)(de)基本特(te)征附件,它的(de)(de)工作质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)直接(jie)关系(xi)到整机的(de)(de)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang),也(ye)是构成设备投资中(zhong)的(de)(de)重(zhong)要组成部分(经费占整机成本的(de)(de)10%~30%)。因此,在选择主机设备时必须得重(zhong)视所配ATC自(zi)动(dong)换(huan)刀(dao)装置(zhi)的(de)(de)工作质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)和刀(dao)具储存(cun)量(liang)(liang)(liang)。目前(qian)加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)自(zi)动(dong)换(huan)刀(dao)装置(zhi)的(de)(de)配套(tao)较为(wei)规范,以下以加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)ATC装置(zhi)为(wei)例来说明其选择原(yuan)则。


现场经验表(biao)明,在加(jia)工中心的(de)(de)使用(yong)故障中有(you)50%左右与(yu)ATC装置有(you)关,但ATC又是(shi)提高设备加(jia)工效率的(de)(de)基本部件,因此建(jian)议用(yong)户应(ying)(ying)在满足(zu)使用(yong)要求的(de)(de)前(qian)提下(xia),尽(jin)量选用(yong)结构简单(dan)和可*性高的(de)(de)ATC,这(zhei)样也(ye)可以相(xiang)应(ying)(ying)地(di)降低整机(ji)价格。


下面(mian)介绍(shao)与ATC装(zhuang)置相关的主(zhu)要技(ji)术参数。


(1)刀柄型号 

潭兴分度盘认为刀柄型号取决于机床主轴装刀柄孔的规格。现在绝大部分加工中心机床主轴孔都是采用ISO规定的7:24锥孔,常用的有40号、45号、50号等,个别的还有30号和35号。机床规格越小,刀柄规格也应选小的,但小规格刀柄对加工大尺寸孔和长孔很不利,所以对一台机床如果有大规格的刀柄可选择时,应该尽量选择大的,但刀库容量和换刀时间都要受到影响。近年来加工中心和数控铣床都向高速化方向发展,许多实验数据表明:当主轴转速超过10000r/min以上时,7:24锥孔由于离心力作用会有一定涨大,影响刀柄的定位精度。为此,一种观点是建议采用德国VDI推荐的短锥刀柄HSK系列,另外,在日本已有部分商品的锥面和端面同时接触的过定位锥面刀柄,但在定心精度和重复定位精度方面,HSK系列要好一些,目前在国内还很少有厂家生产。


对同(tong)一(yi)种锥面(mian)规格(ge)的(de)(de)刀柄(bing)(bing)有(you)日(ri)本(ben)BT标(biao)准(zhun)、美国CAT标(biao)准(zhun)、德国VDI标(biao)准(zhun)等,他们规定机械手(shou)爪夹(jia)持的(de)(de)尺(chi)寸不一(yi)样,刀柄(bing)(bing)的(de)(de)拉紧(jin)钉尺(chi)寸也不一(yi)样,所(suo)以选(xuan)择时(shi)必(bi)须考(kao)虑齐全(quan),对已(yi)经拥(yong)有(you)一(yi)定数量(liang)数控机床的(de)(de)用(yong)户或即将采购(gou)一(yi)批数控机床的(de)(de)用(yong)户,应尽可能选(xuan)择互相能通用(yong)的(de)(de)、单一(yi)标(biao)准(zhun)的(de)(de)刀柄(bing)(bing)系列。


(2)换刀时间


换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时间(jian)(jian)是指刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)交换时间(jian)(jian),即从主轴上换下用过的(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)、装(zhuang)上新的(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)的(de)总时间(jian)(jian)。细分(fen)又有(you)两种(zhong)规定方式(shi),即刀(dao)(dao)(dao)对刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时间(jian)(jian)(Tool to tool)和总换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时间(jian)(jian)(Chip to chip),总换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时间(jian)(jian)包含了旧刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)加工(gong)完毕离开加工(gong)区域到刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)交换完毕主轴上装(zhuang)上新刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)进入新的(de)加工(gong)前之(zhi)(zhi)间(jian)(jian)的(de)时间(jian)(jian)。目前快的(de)纯换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时间(jian)(jian)可达0.7s左右,总换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时间(jian)(jian)在3~12s之(zhi)(zhi)间(jian)(jian),立式(shi)机床(chuang)换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时间(jian)(jian)一般比卧(wo)式(shi)的(de)短。换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)时间(jian)(jian)短意味着机床(chuang)生(sheng)产效率高。


(3)大(da)刀具(ju)重量


大(da)(da)刀具重(zhong)量是指在自(zi)动刀具交换情况下允(yun)许的大(da)(da)刀具重(zhong)量,锥度40号(hao)左(zuo)右刀柄(bing)大(da)(da)允(yun)许重(zhong)量在7~8kg,50号(hao)刀柄(bing)在15kg,一些重(zhong)型刀具可达25~30kg,但这(zhei)时换刀速度要减慢。大(da)(da)刀具直径和长(zhang)度主(zhu)要受(shou)刀库尺寸(cun)空(kong)间的限(xian)制。


(4)刀库(ku)容量


一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)些(xie)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心机床(chuang)(chuang)上配置(zhi)(zhi)的刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)容量(liang)(liang)(liang)往(wang)往(wang)有(you)几种规(gui)格供选(xuan)择,有(you)十几把到40、60、100把等,一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)些(xie)柔性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)单(dan)元(FMC)配置(zhi)(zhi)中(zhong)央刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)后刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)储存(cun)量(liang)(liang)(liang)可达近千把,刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)的容量(liang)(liang)(liang)只要(yao)能满足基本需要(yao),一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)般(ban)不宜选(xuan)得太大(da),因为(wei)容量(liang)(liang)(liang)大(da),刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)成本高,结构复杂,故障率也相应(ying)(ying)增加(jia),刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)管理也较(jiao)为(wei)复杂。在(zai)单(dan)台(tai)机床(chuang)(chuang)使用(yong)中(zhong),当更换(huan)一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)种新(xin)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)件时,操作者要(yao)根据新(xin)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)资料对刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)进(jin)行一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)次清理,刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)中(zhong)无(wu)关的刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)越多,整理工(gong)(gong)(gong)作量(liang)(liang)(liang)也就越大(da),也就越容易出现人(ren)为(wei)的差(cha)错。所以(yi)用(yong)户一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)般(ban)应(ying)(ying)根据典(dian)(dian)型(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件的工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)分析(xi),算出需用(yong)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)数(shu)(shu)量(liang)(liang)(liang),进(jin)而确定(ding)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)的容量(liang)(liang)(liang)。如(ru)果不是按(an)柔性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)单(dan)元或(huo)柔性(xing)制(zhi)造系(xi)统(tong)来考虑,一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)般(ban)机床(chuang)(chuang)的刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)以(yi)满足一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)种工(gong)(gong)(gong)件一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)次装夹所需的全部刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄数(shu)(shu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)作为(wei)选(xuan)择依据。根据国外(wai)对中(zhong)小(xiao)型(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)典(dian)(dian)型(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件的工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)分析(xi),认为(wei)中(zhong)小(xiao)型(xing)机床(chuang)(chuang)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)储存(cun)量(liang)(liang)(liang)应(ying)(ying)在(zai)4~48把之间(jian)。


在纳入柔性制造单元的机床(chuang)中,考虑到(dao)适(shi)应多工件、多工序同(tong)时加工的要求,需要配置大容(rong)量的刀库,此时应增加相应的刀具管(guan)理措施。


2.刀(dao)柄(bing)和刀(dao)具的选择


潭兴(xing)分(fen)(fen)(fen)度盘认(ren)为在主机(ji)和(he)(he)(he)(he)自动(dong)换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)装置(zhi)(ATC)确(que)定后,要选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)所(suo)需的(de)(de)(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)和(he)(he)(he)(he)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)(刃(ren)具(ju))。数(shu)控(kong)机(ji)床所(suo)用(yong)(yong)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)系列(lie)基本都已(yi)标准(zhun)化(hua),尤其是(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心所(suo)用(yong)(yong)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing),如(ru)美国的(de)(de)(de)CAT、日本的(de)(de)(de)BT和(he)(he)(he)(he)我国的(de)(de)(de)JT等(deng)。数(shu)控(kong)机(ji)床加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)件(jian)终要的(de)(de)(de)是(shi)切削刃(ren)具(ju),但刃(ren)具(ju)和(he)(he)(he)(he)机(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)连(lian)接、在自动(dong)交(jiao)换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)时提供(gong)给机(ji)械手的(de)(de)(de)夹持(chi)部位等(deng)都要*刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)来解决,所(suo)以选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)实质上是(shi)包括(kuo)刃(ren)具(ju)和(he)(he)(he)(he)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)的(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)。刃(ren)具(ju)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)取决于加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)艺要求,刃(ren)具(ju)确(que)定后还必须(xu)配置(zhi)相应刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing),例如(ru),工(gong)艺要求钻一(yi)个(ge)直径(jing)6mm的(de)(de)(de)小孔,则(ze)刃(ren)具(ju)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong)直径(jing)6mm直柄(bing)麻花钻头,然后还要选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong)一(yi)个(ge)能(neng)夹持(chi)钻头的(de)(de)(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)。现在有一(yi)部分(fen)(fen)(fen)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)本身也配置(zhi)专(zhuan)用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)刃(ren)具(ju),如(ru)精镗(tang)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)等(deng)。总之,这(zhei)些(xie)附件(jian)绝(jue)大(da)部分(fen)(fen)(fen)都已(yi)标准(zhun)化(hua),由专(zhuan)业(ye)化(hua)生产厂供(gong)货,机(ji)床用(yong)(yong)户(hu)要根(gen)据具(ju)体(ti)加(jia)工(gong)对象合理(li)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong)。由于刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄(bing)可供(gong)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)的(de)(de)(de)范围很广,但选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)多了将加(jia)大(da)投资,选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)少了将影响机(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)开(kai)动(dong)率,所(suo)以应慎重对待。 


3.自动(dong)交换工作台


自动(dong)交换工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)是在主机上(shang)(shang)配(pei)(pei)置的(de)附件(jian)(jian),配(pei)(pei)置的(de)数(shu)量有2、4、6、10个等,除双交换工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)以(yi)外,主要用(yong)柔(rou)性制(zhi)造单元(yuan)(yuan)配(pei)(pei)置。双交换工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)的(de)配(pei)(pei)置可(ke)以(yi)大(da)大(da)节省复(fu)杂(za)零件(jian)(jian)装卸(xie)定位夹紧的(de)辅助(zhu)时间(jian),提高(gao)机床开动(dong)率,但(dan)增(zeng)加(jia)该(gai)功能设备(bei),投(tou)资至少(shao)要加(jia)10万元(yuan)(yuan)以(yi)上(shang)(shang)。多(duo)数(shu)量交换工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)用(yong)于柔(rou)性制(zhi)造单元(yuan)(yuan),适用(yong)于24小时少(shao)人或无人化(hua)管(guan)理,适应多(duo)品种工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)交替投(tou)产加(jia)工(gong)(gong),这里应注(zhu)意(yi)增(zeng)加(jia)质(zhi)量检查措施,否则投(tou)资增(zeng)长20%~50%是不经济的(de)。


七、机床选择功能及附件的选择


在选购(gou)数(shu)控机床时,除(chu)满(man)足基(ji)本要(yao)求(qiu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)功能及基(ji)本件(jian)(jian)(jian)外,还应充(chong)分(fen)考虑选择(ze)件(jian)(jian)(jian)选择(ze)功能及附件(jian)(jian)(jian)。选择(ze)原则(ze)是:全面(mian)配(pei)置(zhi),充(chong)分(fen)发挥主机的(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)潜力,远近期效(xiao)益综合考虑。对一(yi)些价格增(zeng)加不(bu)多,但对使用(yong)(yong)(yong)带(dai)来很多方便的(de)(de)(de)(de),应尽可能配(pei)置(zhi)齐全。附件(jian)(jian)(jian)配(pei)套要(yao)保证机床到现场后能立即投入使用(yong)(yong)(yong),切忌花几十万元甚至几百万购(gou)买的(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)台机床,到货后因缺乏一(yi)个几十元或几百元的(de)(de)(de)(de)附件(jian)(jian)(jian)而长期不(bu)能使用(yong)(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)情(qing)况的(de)(de)(de)(de)发生。 


在(zai)提高加(jia)工(gong)质(zhi)量(liang)和工(gong)作(zuo)可*性上也发(fa)展了许多附(fu)件(jian),如自动测(ce)量(liang)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置、接触式测(ce)头及相(xiang)应测(ce)量(liang)软(ruan)件(jian)、刀具长度和磨损(sun)检测(ce)、机床热变形补偿软(ruan)件(jian)等(deng)(deng)附(fu)件(jian),这(zhei)些附(fu)件(jian)选(xuan)用原则(ze)是要(yao)求工(gong)作(zuo)可*、不片面追求新颖(ying)。对一些辅助功能附(fu)件(jian),如冷却、防(fang)护和排屑等(deng)(deng)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置主要(yao)根据今(jin)后在(zai)现场(chang)使用要(yao)求和工(gong)艺要(yao)求而定,例如,考虑以后加(jia)工(gong)大裕量(liang)铸铁件(jian)的(de)要(yao)求,则(ze)要(yao)选(xuan)用高密(mi)封(feng)防(fang)护罩(zhao)、大流(liu)量(liang)淋浴(yu)式冷却方式、纸(zhi)质(zhi)冷却液(ye)过滤(lv)器(qi)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置等(deng)(deng)。总之,要(yao)选(xuan)择与生产(chan)能力相(xiang)适应的(de)辅件(jian)。

潭兴分度盘

八、技术服务


数控机床作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)一种高科(ke)(ke)技(ji)产品,包含(han)了多学科(ke)(ke)的(de)(de)专业内(nei)容,对这样复(fu)杂的(de)(de)技(ji)术设备,要应用好、维修好单(dan)*应用单(dan)位(wei)自身努力是远远不(bu)够的(de)(de),而且也很难做到,必须依*和利用社会上的(de)(de)专业队伍。因此,在选(xuan)购设备时还应综(zong)合考虑选(xuan)购其(qi)围绕设备的(de)(de)售前、售后(hou)技(ji)术服务,其(qi)宗旨就是要使(shi)设备尽(jin)快尽(jin)量地(di)发挥作(zuo)(zuo)用。


总(zong)之,凡重视(shi)技术队伍建设、重视(shi)职工(gong)素质提高的(de)企业(ye),数控机(ji)床就能得到(dao)合理使(shi)(shi)用。所以在选择机(ji)床时,建议用户花一部(bu)分资金选购(gou)针对(dui)自己短缺的(de)技术服务,使(shi)(shi)设备(bei)尽快发挥作(zuo)用。


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